依類型 族群 主題   
 
 
2007.06.01 ~ 2008.06.01
西拉雅「公廨」建築文化遺存之研究 The Study on the cultural Remains of “Konkai” Buildings in Siraya’s Tribe
族群: 平埔族  
主題: 建築、考古遺址  
作者 郭美芳
學校系所 國立成功大學建築學系碩博士班
地點 全臺 全部  
研究內容

[ 摘要 ]
本論文試圖重構西拉雅「公廨」建築文化遺存之演化脈絡。位居台南及其周邊的西拉雅平埔族群,據史料及文獻,在過去曾經有信仰、政治與社群組織運作功能的場所,1603年陳第著〈東番記〉最先以漢語「公廨」紀錄,始自日治的學者長期研究與調查,均顯示所留存的公廨與社群政治運作無關,僅信仰與祭祀功能;顯然多功能的「公廨」歷經外來政權及漢族移民等他文化衝擊而變遷。現階段公廨空間,多為三片壁斜頂建築,可見裝著水並插青的祀壺,及掛著獸頭骨的竹柱或竹枝,等殘存的傳統文化元素;不同公廨其殘存的元素是依循各小群體內在社會邏輯選擇的記憶與傳統,呈現出異同的現象,近期大環境變化加劇,殘貌幾近消失或為新形貌所替代。
本研究以族群分佈為對象,試圖比對公廨建築殘存元素、符號,歸納特定語彙與表徵、判讀其文化意涵、研究其文化遺存;其一透過歷史前後期文化特質(物質、信仰與社會)的比較,其二族群內部公廨建築與信仰空間的差異點(同中見異)與共同點(異中求同)的比較;方法上立基於前人調查研究成果、採比較法,比對前後期史料、分析與詮釋,以建構公廨不同歷史時空之功能、性質及可能之空間形式;再透過田調樣本,分析空間殘存元素形式,釐清近期可見之特徵及變遷模式與表徵。文中分四部分:1. 探討史料中公廨功能、形式與轉化,2. 彙整田調、分析公廨建築遺存之特質,3.借用前人研究比對古今,4. 建構遺存之公廨空間組構元素特徵與形式之轉化。
由結果可知,17世紀中後期,由於外來政權的操控,瓦解原先緊密結合的政治、信仰與社會組織,公廨多樣功能因此分化獨立,被另累或單一功能佔用,原有學習與居住功能為社學與社寮取代、整合政治運作的信仰功能為教堂/廟宇所取代,公廨成為土目、通事辦公、居住之所,傳統信仰隱藏宅地之內。日治後,政治與教育由派駐地方之日警執行,原清治時公廨的政治功能消失,涵化成今日狹隘之信仰與祭祀功能。過程中除了信仰主神轉化為漢人神祇外,更因營建技術受漢人影響、使用漢人屋厝與空間格局,原與建築結構不可分之神聖象徵物-「中脊柱」因此位移或消失,祭台轉向、採納漢人階序觀念配置,使神體與超自然媒介等象徵物在空間中座落位序錯亂,特殊意涵之脊飾因建材、工法改變,形式隨之改變或消失,以致形成今日所見之公廨。

[ 英文摘要 ]
This thesis attempts to reconstruct the culture remains of konkai buildings in Siraya’s tribe. According to historical records, in the 17th century was a multi-functional space that served religious, political, economic and communal purpose, which was named “konkai” in Chinese records “dong-fan-ji”(東番記). However, long-term research of konkai since the Japanese colonial years indicates that its functions have now reduced to a religious one. Due to more than 300 years interacted with aliens cultural, the tribal cultural acculturation and multi-functional building was changed. However there still remains some traditional element in present space.(such as jars fill with water and bamboo hang with animal skull )
Based on extant scholarship and a re-interpretation of available sources, and field survey existing konkai and tribal villager interviews, we try to compare features with different period and present remains. We found that around 17th century alien regime manipulated policy cause the tribe’s close together socio-organization collapsed, konkai’s multi-function gradually substituted by or disintegrated into village schools, communitive office, and religious places (temple/church). However, there are still traces to identify changes. The analysis revealed that although their traditional construction system of building was changed by Han’s technology and building type, and the most important structure of building-the central column were replaced or disappeared, which make the symbolic and intermediary of supernatural element confused. There still have some meaning of symbolic element in their spatial layout, Such as two equal right sacrificial were replaced by Chinese hierarchy, the form of roof decoration was transformed etc.. Thus, the current building layout and form of konkai reflect such cultural change and its result to-date.