依類型 族群 主題   
 
 
2001.06.01 ~ 2002.06.01
從麥寮拱範宮遶境活動看信仰文化中人群的結合
族群: 平埔族  
主題: 歲時祭儀  
作者 程美蓉
學校系所 國立臺南大學鄉土文化研究所碩 / 博士班
地點 雲林縣 麥寮鄉    
研究內容

[ 摘要 ]

麥寮聚落的形成,因乾隆7年(1742)新虎尾溪氾濫,淹毀海豐港街,使居民與拱範宮媽祖廟同時遷移至此,迨道光年間,海豐港的開港使商務鼎盛,而街市發展至顛峰狀態。同時,由泉州移民以許姓、林姓、吳姓為主的宗族,向南社平埔族人承租埔地,直接入墾麥寮地區,形成血緣聚落,並基於血緣連帶關係,而形成組織化宗族團體。

為防備械鬥,而有同籍結盟,或組織庄的自衛團體,並常以神明祭祀等宗教活動為其結合核心。拱範宮的信仰組織以元宵遶境及五股會的祭典活動,為其整合個別的血緣組織與地緣組織的核心。在聚落空間性的形成,以拱範宮為中心的四個方位,所形成的四方角頭廟,即賦予其鎮東、鎮南、鎮西、鎮北宮之命名,如同五營含有鎮守該角頭之意。村落與角頭的祭祀活動都是由同居一地的人,基於同庄意識而產生,由中心的地方公廟與四方角頭廟的空間形式,定期舉行元宵遶境及媽祖聖誕巡幸遶境等宗教性活動,營建出聚落的空間性。

拱範宮媽祖信仰在聯結超地域的村落組織中,扮演這個聯結機制的象徵意義核心。五股會遶境活動的進行,其意義是藉由民間信仰活動的進行,得以連繫各村落間村民的感情,並傳承流續。

透過同庄性(元宵遶境)與聯庄性信仰活動(五股會遶境)的位階關係的連結,說明信仰文化在區域性信仰活動下,是連結不同人群,凝聚為一個完整的社會組織結構的方式。

而民間信仰結合人群的特色,對地方上的血緣與地緣組織,具有整合社會組織的功能;在社會關係的呈現上,藉由不同的遶境活動,可呈現出層次不同的空間性;而人群參與信仰活動的理由,是藉由遶境活動淨化聚落空間儀式的功能,以滿足居的安全感的需求,同時,在神明遶境的熱鬧過程中,發展個人的人際關係網絡,是為滿足社會關係的需求,進而對鄉土產生認同,並以此重複性的觀念與活動,形塑鄉土文化中,信仰活動結合人群的特色。



[ 英文摘要 ]

Mai-Liou settlement was formed in 1742. Due to the damage of

Food of New Hoo-Way stream, inhabitants and Gon-Fan-Goan moved to

the location today. Migrants from Quen-Chou rend land from aboriginal

people Pin-Pou and cultivated the farmland. These Migrants are mainly

from families ot''''Hsue, Lin and Wu. They organized relatives group

concerned of religious.

Self-defense groups were united through religious sacrifice

activities. The most important sacrifice activities of Gon-Fan-Goan were

Latem-Festival and Wou-Gou-Hui. Wou-Gou-Hui was fanned by five

settlements, there were village temples in each settlement and they were

around Gon-Fan-Goan. The related locations formed a spatial meaning.

Gon-Fan-Goan is the center of these organizations. Marching

activity of religious sacrifice combined people in different villages

Marching activities of religious sacrifice are different from its'''' scales,

organized by one village or several villages. These social linkages

through culture of belief explained human assembly in these activities.

The folk-belief united peoples and showed the functions of integrate

of relative or arial organizations. Marching activities had its'''' spatial

hierarchy. People in these marching activities searched for security and

purity and looking for stronger linkage of human relations. Continuously

as a heLtage, these customs thus formed the indigenous culture and

combined local people as human assembly.